One Year On: Care Sector Challenges Arising from COVID-19

12 May 2021

COVID-19 has presented a number of challenges for all walks of life, including the care sector. According to data published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and the Care Quality Commission (CQC), 28,975 care home residents in England and Wales were reported to have died from a COVID-19 related death between 10 April 2020 and 9 April 2021. Tragically, ONS data also reveals that by the end of December 2020, COVID-19 had claimed the lives of almost 900 care workers.

In this article, the first of three in a series, we focus on how the vulnerability of the care sector population, the availability of Personal Protective Equipment (‘PPE’) and comprehensive testing, and chronic workforce pressures have contributed to the scale and severity of the impact of COVID-19 in the care sector.

Vulnerable Population Group

Care sector service users make up one of the most vulnerable population groups in society. Older people are more likely to present with underlying health conditions and weakened immune systems, making them particularly susceptible to developing serious manifestations of COVID-19. A study published by Lancet Global Health found the risk of severe illness and death arising from COVID-19 is closely linked to frailty and underlying health conditions such as dementia, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease. Coupled with this, care homes present a vulnerable environment with residents requiring personal contact with others on a frequent basis to meet their needs.

Workforce Pressures

The care sector has for a long time struggled with chronic workforce pressures in the form of inadequate funding and pay, leading to high employee turnover. The pandemic has made these challenges even more acute. In response, the Department of Health & Social Care (‘DHSC’) established a Social Care Sector COVID-19 Support Taskforce in June 2020 to oversee the delivery of two support packages for the care sector: the Social Care Action Plan and the Care Home Support Plan. Notably, the taskforce reported an increased risk of transmission of COVID-19 arising from staff movement across multiple sites, and that this was owing to poor working terms and conditions, absence of contractual sick pay and high turnover rates.

On 1 April 2021, the DHSC announced a campaign to recruit an additional 20,000 people into the care sector by July 2021 and pledged up to £3 million to support free rapid online training for new recruits, existing staff, and volunteers. It remains too early to tell how much these measures will alleviate the workforce pressures the sector faces, but they are clearly a move in the right direction.

Availability of PPE Comprehensive Testing

The early months of the pandemic were fraught with issues around the lack of availability of PPE. In addition to this, many care homes raised concern about service users being discharged from the NHS to their care without up-to-date test results. Further, inflated costs meant that providers were simply unable financially to provide staff with the most basic and essential protection. Free PPE provision to the care sector was introduced in September 2020 as part of the government's winter care plan, and this scheme has now been extended to March 2022. In addition to this, care homes can now access testing for all their residents and staff, regardless of whether they are displaying symptoms, via a new digital portal for care home testing.

Where next?

Throughout the pandemic, care sector staff have demonstrated incredible resilience and dedication in their work. Amidst turmoil, they have continued relentlessly to deliver care to the most vulnerable members of our society. This is despite the multiple growing pressures and enduring issues the sector has faced, many of which pre-date the pandemic. As we emerge from the third lockdown, alleviating immediate pressures within the care sector is understandably the focus of the measures introduced by DHSC. We can only hope that the recent policy-level acknowledgment of these issues and the renewed support we have witnessed in this area will continue much further into the future. In our next article in the series, we will discuss the CQC’s evolved approach to regulating the care sector during the pandemic. 

This article originally appeared in Issue 50 of The Carer Digital, view the magazine here.


If you have any questions or concerns about the content covered in this blog, please contact  Shannett Thompson or a member of the Regulatory team.



Shannett Thompson is a Partner in the Regulatory Team having trained in the NHS and commenced her career exclusively defending doctors. She provides regulatory advice predominantly in the health and social care and education sectors. Shannett has vast experience advising  regulated individuals,  businesses such as clinics and care homes and students in respect of disciplinary investigations. She is a member of the private prosecutions team providing advice to individuals, business and charities in respect of prosecutions were traditional agencies are unwilling or unable to act. In addition Shannett has built up a significant niche in advising investors and businesses in the cannabis sector.

Lucinda Soon is a professional support lawyer in the Regulatory team, and is responsible for knowledge management and practice development. Her work focuses on leveraging the team’s collective knowledge and expertise, ensuring that know-how and current and emerging regulatory developments are identified, evaluated, synthesised, and shared. She is particularly experienced in the adoption of technology to aid the delivery of these outcomes.


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